Eczema

If your skin itches and turns red from time to time, you might have eczema. This skin condition is very common in children, but adults can get it too.
Eczema is sometimes called atopic dermatitis, which is the most common form. “Atopic” refers to an allergy. People with eczema often have allergies or asthma along with itchy, red skin.
Eczema comes in a few other forms, too. Each eczema type has its own set of symptoms and triggers.
There are also some common symptoms for all types of eczema:
dry, scaly skin
redness
itching, which may be intense
PICTURES

Eczema on infants face

Eczema on hand

Eczema on elbow

Eczema on palm

TOPIC DERMATITIS
1. Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is the most common form of eczema. It usually starts in childhood, and often gets milder or goes away by adulthood. Atopic dermatitis is part of what doctors call the atopic triad. “Triad” means three. The other two diseases in the triad are asthma and hay fever. Many people with atopic dermatitis have all three conditions.
Symptoms

In atopic dermatitis:
the rash often forms in the creases of your elbows or knees
skin in areas where the rash appears may turn lighter or darker, or get thicker
small bumps may appear and leak fluid if you scratch them
babies often get the rash on their scalp and cheeks
your skin can get infected if you scratch it
Causes

Atopic dermatitis happens when your skin’s natural barrier against the elements is weakened. This means your skin is less able to protect you against irritants and allergens. Atopic dermatitis is likely caused by a combination of factors such as:
genes
dry skin
an immune system problem
triggers in the environment

2. Contact dermatitis

If you have red, irritated skin that’s caused by a reaction to substances you touch, you may have contact dermatitis. It comes in two types: Allergic contact dermatitis is an immune system reaction to an irritant like latex or metal. Irritant contact dermatitis starts when a chemical or other substance irritates your skin.

Symptoms

In contact dermatitis:
your skin itches, turns red, burns, and stings
itchy bumps called hives may pop up on your skin
fluid-filled blisters can form that may ooze and crust over
over time, the skin may thicken and feel scaly or leathery

Causes

Contact dermatitis happens when you touch a substance that irritates your skin or causes an allergic reaction. The most common causes are:
detergents
bleach
jewelry
latex
nickel
paint
poison ivy and other poisonous plants
skin care products, including makeup
soaps and perfumes
solvents
tobacco smoke

3. Dyshidrotic eczema

Dyshidrotic eczema causes small blisters to form on your hands and feet. It’s more common in women than men.

Symptoms
In dyshidrotic eczema:
fluid-filled blisters form on your fingers, toes, palms, and soles of your feet
these blisters may itch or hurt
the skin can scale, crack, and flake
Causes
Dyshidrotic eczema can be caused by:
allergies
damp hands and feet
exposure to substances such as nickel, cobalt, or chromium salt
stress

4. Hand eczema

Eczema that only affects your hands is called hand eczema. You may get this type if you work in a job like hairdressing or cleaning, where you regularly use chemicals that irritate the skin.

Symptoms
In hand eczema:
your hands get red, itchy, and dry
they may form cracks or blisters
Causes
Hand eczema is triggered by exposure to chemicals. People who work in jobs that expose them to irritants are more likely to get this form, such as:
cleaning
hairdressing
healthcare
laundry or dry cleaning

5. Neurodermatitis

Neurodermatitis is similar to atopic dermatitis. It causes thick, scaly patches to pop up on your skin.

Symptoms
In neurodermatitis:
thick, scaly patches form on your arms, legs, back of your neck, scalp, bottoms of your feet, backs of your hands, or genitals
these patches can be very itchy, especially when you’re relaxed or asleep
if you scratch the patches, they can bleed and get infected

Causes
Neurodermatitis usually starts in people who have other types of eczema or psoriasis. Doctors don’t know exactly what causes it, although stress can be a trigger.

6. Nummular eczema

This type of eczema causes round, coin-shaped spots to form on your skin. The word “nummular” means coin in Latin. Nummular eczema looks very different from other types of eczema, and it can itch a lot.

Symptoms
In nummular eczema:
round, coin-shaped spots form on your skin
the spots may itch or become scaly

Causes
Nummular eczema can be triggered by a reaction to an insect bite, or by an allergic reaction to metals or chemicals. Dry skin can also cause it. You’re more likely to get this form if you have another type of eczema, such as atopic dermatitis.

7. Stasis dermatitis

Stasis dermatitis happens when fluid leaks out of weakened veins into your skin. This fluid causes swelling, redness, itching, and pain.

Symptoms
In stasis dermatitis:
the lower part of your legs may swell up, especially during the day when you’ve been walking
your legs may ache or feel heavy
you’ll likely also have varicose veins, which are thick, ropey damaged veins in your legs
the skin over those varicose veins will be dry and itchy
you may develop open sores on your lower legs and on the tops of your feet

Causes
Stasis dermatitis happens in people who have blood flow problems in their lower legs. If the valves that normally push blood up through your legs toward your heart malfunction, blood can pool in your legs. Your legs can swell up and varicose veins can form.

TIPS TO AVOID ECZEMA OUTBREAKS

There are numerous things that people with eczema can do to support skin health and alleviate symptoms, such as:
1 taking lukewarm baths
2 applying moisturizer within 3 minutes of bathing to “lock in” moisture
3 moisturizing every day
4 wearing cotton and soft fabrics, and avoiding rough, scratchy fibers and tight-fitting clothing
5 using a mild soap or a non-soap cleanser when washing
6 air drying or gently patting skin dry with a towel, rather than rubbing the skin dry after bathing
7 where possible, avoiding rapid changes of temperature and activities that make you sweat
8 learning and avoiding individual eczema triggers
9 using a humidifier in dry or cold weather
10 keeping fingernails short to prevent scratching from breaking the skin

Symptoms vary according to the age of the person with eczema, but they often include scaly, itchy patches of skin.
Eczema can also be triggered by environmental factors like smoke and pollen. However, eczema is not a curable condition.
Treatment focuses on healing damaged skin and alleviating symptoms. There is not yet a full cure for eczema, but symptoms can be managed.
Eczema is not a contagious condition.

HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT

1. Graphites-One of the best Homeopathic medicines for Eczema or atopic dermatitis with thick oozing
Where there is oozing of thick and sticky discharge from the eruptions, Graphites is the best Homeopathic medicine for eczema or atopic dermatitis. Usually the patient is obese and suffers from constipation. Such patients are more likely to be sensitive to the cold weather.The skin is rough and hard. In unaffected areas, the skin is dry. It is often indicated in females with menstrual difficulties. The menses are late and scanty.

2. Mezereum- One of the best Homeopathic remedies for Eczema or atopic dermatitis with crust formation
When there is formation of a crust, more so on the head, Mezereum is the best Homeopathic medicine for eczema. The head is usually covered with a thick, leather like crust. Pus collects just below the crust. The itching is intolerable and is worse in the bed. The patient feels better in open air and is worse at night.

3. Hepar Sulphur- One of the best Homeopathic medicines for Eczema or atopic dermatitis with pus formation
In cases, where suppuration or pus formation is most marked, Hepar Sulphur is the most useful medicine for atopic dermatitis or eczema. There is intense itching in the area affected by eczema. There are deep cracks on the skin. The patient is sensitive to touch and also to cold air but is better in the damp weather. The eruptions aggravate in winters. The sensitivity to cold is so much that the person cannot uncover himself even for a moment. Even if a door is opened in the other room, he will feel the cold and often starts reacting or sneezing because of the change in temperature. For such a patient, Hepar Sulph is often the best homeopathic medicine for eczema.

4. Dulcamara- One of the best Homeopathic medicines for Eczema or atopic dermatitis worse in the cold damp weather
For eruptions that aggravate in the cold damp weather, Dulcamara is one of the best homeopathic medicines for eczema or atopic dermatitis. The itching is also worse in cold damp weather. There is the formation of thick brown yellow crusts which bleed when scratched.

5. Sulphur- One of the best Homeopathic medicines for Eczema with burning
If there is intense burning along with itching in the eczematous parts, then Sulphur is the best Homeopathic medicine for eczema. The problems tend to get worse in heat and in summers. The skin is usually dry and looks unhealthy. The itching is worse from warmth and in the evening. There are often other skin problems too that may affect the person. Usually family history of skin diseases is also seen in such cases. The patient often feels hungry in the morning around 11 am.

Please note

Above mentioned medicines should be taken under trained homoeopath.
Eczema is a chronic complaint that should have the careful management of a trained homeopath.
A detailed case history and correct remedial diagnosis is of utmost important for the cure of eczema
Hence for good results in the treatment of your eczema, please use the services of a fully qualified homeopath

We at Holistic cure provide excellent quality homoeopathic treatment with utmost care and concern

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Examtime diet and lifestyle tips

During exams, students spend long hours studying and staying awake. Intake of the right food in small quantities with brain food will keep them stimulated and alert. During exam a little modification in lifestyle is needed.

Good preparation helps crack the board exam, but so does good nutrition – which students tend to neglect under stress and anxiety.

Besides boosting energy levels, Healthy eating sharpens memory, helps you stay in control and improves concentration. So what should one eat during the exams?

General guidelines. 
1 It’s best to eat light digestible home-cooked food along with fresh fruits and vegetables

2  Energy and fizzy drinks, chips and other junk food are a strict no-no.

    Instead, dieticians advise students to munch on dates and nuts.

3 Children should have succulent fruits and vegetables because that will rehydrate the body and                                                            provide enrichment of nutrients and will not make them feel sleepy after the meal. Eg: A fruit plate with water melon, musk melon, strawberries, oranges, and sweetlime works well and for a salad plate opt for green cucumber, and zuuchini and salad leaves.

4 Breakfast is the most important meal of the day and should never be skipped

5 Starchy vegetables makes you lethargic and sleepy, so avoid potato, suran, arbi etc.

6  Try to consume light vegetables like bottle gourd or doodhi, Gelki, carrots, methi etc. 

7  Instead of aerated drinks try healthy fresh fruit milkshakes, lassi

8 Avoid too much of tea and coffee as they will cause acidity and heart burn.

9 Hydrate your body. Drink lots of water, fresh seasonal fruit juices

10 Eat small meals Small meals will provide a steady supply of energy to the exam fatigued brain. If you feed your child a large meal, then he/she will experience a dip in energy and also the alertness to study for hours on end.

11 Drink lots of water Ideally drinking 1.5 litres of water a day is recommended. Coconut water, buttermilk, milky drinks, some special teas like chamomile tea can not only help meet the recommended fluid intake but also help in providing nutrients and provide a sense of calm.

12  While you may have heard the mention of Omega-3 fats as heart-protective. However, they also play an important role in memory, concentration, even relieving depression. Studies have found omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexanoic acid (DHA), has shown to increase the brain volume. The sad fact is that our body can’t make any of the omega-3 fats and hence it has to be derived from the diet. 

  Sources of omega-3 fats in the diet: Oily fish like salmon, mackerel, tuna, halibut, trout; seeds  like flax, chia, melon seeds, sunflower also provide omega-3 fats. You can make a powder of the seeds and nuts and drizzle them over soups, dals, salads, chapati flour, and almost anything you can think of.

13  A study found that students experiencing exam stress may have an increased craving for high fat and high sugar snacks. At the same time, the physiological demand of certain nutrients like vit. C, B5, B6, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and the protein tyrosine shoots up. These are the nutrients required for the generation of adrenal hormones or the stress-fighting hormones

Sources of vit. C are fruots like guava stawberries citrus fruits Black currents kiwi etc vegetables like kale cauliflower. Brocolli, peas 

Sources of vit B 5  are chicken liver, cauliflower, brocolli, avacado, sunflower seeds, sundried tomatoes, salmon, corn, mushrooms, yogurt etc

Sources of vit B6 are milk, chicken breast, tuna, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, carrots, spinach, green peas, bananas, chich peas, cereals,avocado etc

Sourses of magnesium and potassium are Asparagus, bananas, leafy greens such as spinach, Swiss chard and kale, cantaloupe, white and sweet potatoes with skin on, citrus fruits, tomatoes, kiwi, papaya and squash

Sources of protein tyrosine are  fish and sea foods, lamb, chicken, seeds and nuts, beans and lentils dairy products like milk, yogurt, cheese etc

14 – Almonds, walnut, pumpkin seeds, cucumber and watermelon will help in improving memory and concentration. Nuts are full of DHA, which is needed in high levels in the brain and eye for learning and memory.

Now lets see what changes are to be made in our lifestyle and sleep 
Know your study schedule: Some people prefer studying in the morning while some others in the night. Know what works for you and get some outdoor time when you know you won’t be able to study! Remember not to do any stimulating activity just before you hit the bed as sleep will evade you.

Key in sleep In your study schedule and make time for it.to

Have a study and activity schedule: You could try to catch some sunshine or outdoor time on every alternate day. A schedule will help you keep track.

Getting a good night’s rest is equally important to acing the exams! It not just helps beat the stress but also helps to study better. 
Consecrate bedroom as the peace room: Which means no laptops, books for revision before sleep, TV or even the smartphone is not allowed. Your brain should lull you to sleep the minute you enter the bedroom.

few people prefer studying till late in the night while others waking up as early as five in the morning to complete all their tasks. Hence work and sleep without disturbing your biological clock. Let not your body feel the brunt of your exams.

Ensure you get least six hours of sleep a day. Taking a quick power nap sometime in the afternoon between 1 P.M. and 3 P.M. can also improve productivity levels. However, make sure that you do not sleep for more than 30 minutes 

A day before the exam, calls for a good, satisfying sleep of eight hours. It is important to remember that even the most challenging problems can be resolved if the mind is allowed to work to its full capacity, which is possible only if it has received adequate sleep and rest.

Cold and cough

Cold and cough 

Your nose is running, you’ve got a cough, and your throat is raw. Is it a cold, allergies, or the flu?

There are similarities to all three, but a few telltale signs can help you tell them apart.

The Start of a Cold

It usually begins with a sore throat, and before you know it, you’ve also got these symptoms:

Runny nose (clear and watery)

Sneezing

Fatigue

Cough

You usually don’t get a fever with a cold. If you do, it may be a sign you’ve got the flu or an infection with a bacteria.

For the first few days that you’re sick, your runny nose will be watery, but it turns thicker and darker after that. You may also get a mild cough that can last into the second week of your cold.

Since a cold can make your asthma worse, check with your doctor to see if you need to change your regular treatment plan.

If you cough up thick or dark mucus or you get a fever, you may have an infection with a bacteria. See your doctor to find out how to treat it. Also see him if your cough doesn’t get better after a few weeks.

Your symptoms usually start between 1 and 3 days after you get infected with a cold virus. They typically last for about 3 to 7 days. By then the worst is over, but you may feel stuffed up for a week or more.

You’re most contagious during the first 3 days that you’re sick, but it’s still possible to spread it during the first week.

Is It Allergies Instead of a Cold?

Sometimes you might mistake cold symptoms for hay fever. If they begin quickly and are over in 1 to 2 weeks, chances are it’s not an allergy.

Allergies are caused by an overactive immune system, your defense against germs. Your body overreacts to things like dust or pollen. It then releases chemicals like histamine. This causes the passageways in your nose to swell, leading to a runny nose, coughing, and sneezing.

Hay fever isn’t contagious, but some people may inherit a tendency to get it.

Is It the Flu?

Take your temperature. A mild case of the flu often has symptoms like a cold, but a cold rarely raises your temperature above 101 degrees F.

Besides a fever, the flu often gives you muscle aches and a headache

.Trusting on home remedies to cure common cold and cough is something that many Indian households still believe. Besides treating common cold and cough effectively, these home remedies are also free from any side-effects. Here we have mentioned some of these home remedies that will help you treat common cold and cough.

Ginger tea

Ginger tea not only tastes good but also helps in treating common cold and cough. The tea helps in drying running and dripping nose, thus expelling phlegm from the respiratory tract. Among various health benefits of ginger, it is known to soothe common cold and speeds up the recovery process.

Mixture of lemon, cinnamon and honey

Another effective home remedy for common cold and cough is a mixture of lemon, cinnamon and honey. This syrup effectively cures cold and cough.

How to make the syrup: In half spoon of honey, add a few drop of lemon and a pinch of cinnamon. Have this syrup twice a day to cure common cold and cough.

Luke-warm water

Drink luke-warm water frequently as it helps in fighting against common cold, cough and sore throat. Warm water reduces inflammation in the throat and helps in replenishing the fluids and infection out of the body.

Milk and turmeric

An essential ingredient found in almost all Indian kitchens, turmeric has a strong antioxidant which helps in treating many health problems. Turmeric mixed in warm milk is a popular and effective way to fight against cold and cough. Drinking a glass of warm turmeric milk before sleeping helps in faster recovery from cold and cough.

Gargle with salt-water

This is an age-old therapy that effectively treats cough and cold. Adding turmeric in this salt-water is also beneficial.

Honey and brandy

Brandy is known to keep your chest warm as it increases body’s temperature and missing honey in brandy helps in fighting a cough. Just a teaspoon of brandy mixed with few drops of honey improves cough and common cold.

Spiced tea

Add tulsi, ginger and black pepper while peparing your tea and this spiced tea is great for your health. These three ingredients play an important role in fighting a common cold and cough.

Honey, lime juice and warm water

This is a perfect dose to improve digestion and for the circulation system. Adding honey to luke-lime water is the best solution in controlling common cold and cough.

Amla

Being a strong immunomodulator, amla fights against many diseases. Eating one amla regularly provides many health benefits as it ensures the proper functioning of the liver and improves blood circulation.

Ginger-tulsi mixture

Extract the ginger juice and add crush tulsi leaves to it and add honey. Consume it to get relief from a cough.

Flaxseeds for cold and cough

Flaxseeds are another effective remedy to cure common cold and cough. You can boil flaxseeds until it thickens and strain it. Add a few drops of lime juice and honey to it and consume the mixture for cold and cough relief.

Ginger and salt

Cut ginger into small pieces and add salt to it. Chew these ginger pieces to fight cold, cough and a sore throat.

Saute garlic

Saute a few garlic cloves in ghee and consume this when warm. This can be a bitter concoction but has a great soothing impact for common cold and cough.

Jaggery solution

Boil water with black pepper, cumin and jaggery to it. Consume this solution when warm and it will give you relief from chest congestion.

Carrot juice

This uncommon home remedy is great to fight common cold and cough. It may sound strange but this interesting drink helps in relieving common cold and cough

Also try some Do it yourself treatments

No. 1: Drink Up!

Get plenty of fluids. It helps break up your congestion, makes your throat moist, and keeps you from getting dehydrated.

No. 2: Make It Steamy!

You can loosen up your stuffy nose if you breathe in some steam. Hold your head over a pot of boiling water and breathe slowly through your nose. But be careful. Don’t let the heat burn your nose.

No. 3: Blow Your Nose

It’s better than sniffling mucus back into your head. But make sure you do it the right way. If you blow hard, you’ll send germ-carrying phlegm back into your ear passages, which can lead to an earache.The best technique? Press a finger over one nostril while you blow gently to clear the other.

No.4 Stay Warm and Rested

It’s especially important to get rest when you first come down with a cold or the flu. It helps your body direct its energy to fighting off your infection. This battle taxes your body. So give it a little help by lying down under a blanket to stay warm if necessary.

No . 5: Gargle With Warm Salt Water It moistens your sore or scratchy throat and brings temporary relief. Try a half teaspoon of salt dissolved in 8 ounces of warm water four times a day.

No 6 Drink Hot Liquids  They relieve your congestion and soothe the inflamed lining of your nose and throat.

No 7  Put Hot Packs on Your Sinuses You can buy reusable ones at a drugstore. Or make your own. Take a damp washcloth and heat it for 30 seconds in a microwave. Test the temperature first to make sure it’s right for you.

No. 8   Try an Extra Pillow Under Your Head Do this at night when you sleep to help relieve congested nasal passages. If the angle is too awkward, place the pillows between the mattress and the box springs to create a more gradual slope.

Homoeopathic medicines

Belladonna: This remedy should be considered when there is a sudden stopping of nasal discharge, and it is replaced by a congestive, usually throbbing, headache and high fever

Arsenicum Album (Ars.)  A streaming cold with burning discharge from eyes and nose. Patient is restless and anxious and very chilly with apparent difficulty in keeping warm. Eyes and nose have a watery discharge. There is sneezing, without relief, and the nose feels stuffed up. Symptoms are worse for cold, during the night and better for warmth.

Aconite Napellus (Acon.)  Sudden onset and early stage of a cold, brought on by exposure or being chilled by a cold wind.

Calcarea Carbonica (Calc-c.)   Stuffy colds, with offensive smell in the nose and unpleasant smelling yellow mucus. Dry, sore, ulcerated nostrils. Individuals that catch colds easily at every change of weather and babies with snuffles.

Euphrasia Red, watery, irritated eyes, frequent sneezing, and a mild, clear nasal discharge suggests a need for this remedy. The person may cough from irritation and from phlegm collecting in the throat. Symptoms can be worse at night, and the person tends to feel better from eating and lying down.

Natrum muriaticum Colds with clear nasal discharge like egg-white, sneezing (which is often worse in the morning), headache, and a diminished sense of smell or taste may respond to this remedy. The person may develop cold sores around the mouth, and the lips can be chapped and cracked.

Parenting

From talking and reading to infants to making values clear (best done in conversations around the dinner table), parents exert enormous influence over their children’s development. It is important for parents to recognize that kids come into the world with their own temperaments, and it is the parents’ job to provide an interface with the world that eventually prepares a child for complete independence. Too much parenting cripples children as they move into adulthood and renders them unable to cope with the merest setbacks. Too-little parenting, establishes that lack of parental engagement often leads to poor behavioral outcomes in children

Need for parentIng skill

Earlier we had joint families and hence the roles of parenting were divided but now in nuclear families the sole responsibility lies with the parents. 

The social structure has changed today there is emphasis on individualization There is lot of pinning down of aspiration of parents on the child,  The challenges from environment have increased Hence parents have to put themselves in many roles 

But some things have not changed ,Successful parentIng  Is still considered as  success as an individual and as a matter of fact is of high esteem. There is still lot of emotional investment parents have overall responsibility of psychological development of the child

Now has the childhood changed?  

The range and variety of exposure has increased to about 3 to 4 times. We had one channel now there are multiple channels  we had one  gadget today there are multiple gadgets And hence single focus has changed to multiple focus and  multitasking 

Stimulus changes the information processing capacity of the nerve cells. Hence there is difference in the parents and childs information processing capacity

Lets Ellaborate the differences

Parents had   ‘Experential judgement ‘  (ie judgement based on experience) whereas child has Sensory perceptual judgement   ( Perception refers to the process of taking in, organizing, and   interpreting sensory information.) 

Parents had Accepting precedence    Ie tradition to be followed  and child has  Questioning presedence

Parent hadLimited goals. ChiLd has   Expanded goals

Parents had Limited options.  Child has  Multiple options

Parents had Limited aspirations.   Child has  Burning aspirations

Parents believed in Slow and steady. Child has to be   Fast

Parents believed in Collectivism Child believes in  Individualism

Challenges in front of parents

Accept the change in process of the world

Accept the change in child and development of the child

Accept the individualization

Accept with strengths and weakness

Accept with empathy

Accept unconditionally

Pricipals of Rational parenting

1 my child is not a part of me.

     I should not use my child as a medium  for fulfilment  of my aspiration

2  I help my child to develop and not mould his /her life

    My inputs are important but not the only cause for devlopment It will contribute to the devopment   Parenting is an important Part of my Life but it is not ‘equal’ to my life

3  Ideal parent is a myth! 

    Since ideal child is a myth let us try to be effective parent here I acknowledge that I am prone  to mistake In ideal parenting any mistake is a sin /crime hence punishment for self or child

4  expect desired results But refrain from demanding

5  change from dictatorial to negotiations

Negotiation is not knealing down  It is done for finding solutionsmfor finding an alternative and not a powershow

6  Enjoy the process at every stage with its tough spots and hilarious ones

7  parenting is a process in which I give all my resources inputs By totally immersing myself into it  But when the result comes not to claim ownership to it Inorder to avoid the superparent or failed parent trap. It is likethe stalk and fruit, stalk supports the fruit to grow and ripen but when it ripens it leaves it ( does not hold it)  

This way there is total involvement but not demanding the results. Thus duty without  burden is enjoyable And coping becomes easy

8     I should look at my own emotional self interest,  my own development

9.    we should have a emotion of gratitude towards our children

     

 

Arthritis

ARTHRITIS

Arthritis is a general term for numerous conditions that affect bone joints; scientists do not know exactly what cause arthritis. Some think the disease is genetic-something that is inherited from your parents. Other think arthritis is caused by infection, obesity, bone damage, or another disease. Regardless of the cause or type of arthritis, people with arthritis experience chronic pain and swelling in their joint

Arthritis is frequently accompanied by joint pain. Joint pain is referred to as arthralgia. When four or more joints are involved, the arthritis is referred to as polyarthritis. When two or three joints are involved, it is referred to as oligoarthritis. 

There are two main types of arthritis – osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. They are quite different from each other. Osteoarthritis is a condition that occurs when cartilage that covers the ends of bones in the joints breaks down and wears away. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease caused by problems with the body’s immune system.

What causes arthritis?

Causes of arthritis

Injury -can damage to bone, ligament and cartilage that ultimately leads to severe pain.

Infection – Any kind of infection to the joint may result arthritis.

Obesity and advanced age – Both are very common cause of arthritis.

Overuse – Overuse of knee joint can cause bursitis which ultimately leads to intense pain.

Sprain- Due to sudden unnatural movements causes pain as well as restriction of movement of the joint.

Malignancy – Myeloma, metastatic carcinoma.

Dislocation – Also causes severe arthritis.

Other causes – Include Sarcoidosis, Sickle cell disease, Lupus, Kawasaki disease, Crohn’s disease, bone tumors, bleeding disorders etc.

Diagnosis of arthritis

Complete physical examination – Include inspection of affected joint, movement, stiffness, tenderness, swelling and other important findings.

Microscopic examination – Of joint fluid.

X-ray– To diagnose fracture.

MRI – to detect ligament rupture and other conditions
MANTOUX TEST – To diagnose tuberculosis

Blood tests – Include complete blood count, coagulation test, and blood culture.

Urine test – Mainly for blood, sugar and protein etc.

What are risk factors for arthritis?

The major risk factors for most forms of arthritis are genes that are inherited from ancestors. Trauma-related arthritis is related to the risk of injury from specific activities.

What are arthritis symptoms and signs?

Symptoms of arthritis include pain and limited function of joints. Joint inflammation from arthritis is characterized by joint stiffness, swelling, redness, pain, and warmth. Tenderness of the inflamed joint can be present with or without pain. When large joints are involved, such as the knee, there can be loss of cartilage with limitation of motion from the joint damage. When arthritis affects the small joints in fingers, there can be bone growth and loss of hand grip and grip strength of the hand.

What is the Conventional treatment for arthritis?

The treatment of arthritis is very dependent on the precise type of arthritis present. An accurate diagnosis increases the chances for successful treatment. Treatments available include physical therapy, home remedies, splinting, cold-pack application, paraffin wax dips, anti-inflammatory drugs, pain medications (ranging from acetaminophen [Tylenol] and ibuprofen [Motrin, Advil] to narcotics), immune-altering medications, biologic medications, and surgical operations. Pain from osteoarthritis of the knee can be relieved by hyaluronic acid injections. Rheumatoid arthritis can require medications that suppress the immune system. Low back arthritis that is irritating nerves of the spine can require surgical repair. For more on treatments of particular forms of arthritis, see the corresponding articles for the form of arthritis of interest.

Is it possible to prevent arthritis?

Since most forms of arthritis are inherited to some degree, there is no real way to prevent them. Arthritis that follows joint injury could be prevented by adhering to safety regulations and trying to avoid becoming injured. Arthritis related to infection (for examples, septic arthritis, reactive arthritis, Whipple’s disease) could be prevented by not becoming infected with the causative organism. The extent to which this is possible varies depending upon the individual condition.

Foods to Try to Ease Arthritis Pain

Remember, there’s no magic food,”   But growing evidence suggests that following a healthy diet and adding in specific foods and spices could help fight inflammation and joint pain.

Broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbage. These veggies are part of the cruciferous family, and they are full of a compound called sulforaphane, which helps slow cartilage damage in joints due to osteoarthritis,  Try adding broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale or cauliflower to your salad or stir-fry.

Fatty fish. Fatty fish like salmon, tuna, trout and mackerel are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which help fight inflammation. Try adding fish to your diet a couple of times a week. If you’re not a big fan of fish, ask your doctor about taking an omega-3 supplement.

Garlic. Garlic is a member of the allium family—which also includes onions and leeks. These items contain a compound called diallyl disulfide that may help with a number of diseases—including arthritis. “This compound may have some effect in limiting cartilage-damaging enzymes,” 

Tart cherries. Some people with arthritis have found relief from products made from tart cherries. The ingredient in cherries that helps with joint symptoms is the same one that gives this fruit its red color—anthocyanin. 

Turmeric. One of the best-researched inflammation fighters isn’t a food at all, but a spice. Tumeric contains a compound called curcumin. A 2012 review published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences said that “curcumin could be beneficial in the management of chronic inflammatory-related joint disease, The compound has been used for centuries in India to ward off inflammatory diseases. You’ll find this yellow spice in Indian cuisines—particularly curries.

Vitamin C. Antioxidants in vitamin C may slow the progression of OA, research finds. A 2011 study from the University of South Florida reported that people who took vitamin C supplements were 11 percent less likely to develop knee OA than those who didn’t take the supplements. You can get vitamin C from strawberries, kiwi, pineapple, or cantaloupe. 

 What is homoeopathic treatment for arthritis? 

The following short list is primarily to provide relief of the acute phase of the arthritic inflammation. It is best to obtain professional homeopathic care to obtain deeper and more significant relief and cure

Bryonia  Alba. – Pain with inflammation which, is aggravated by movement and relieved by moderate pressure and rest.

Ledum pal. – Excellent remedy for gout and rheumatism which is of ascending nature, better by cold application.

Rhus Tox. – Pain aggravated by first movement, damp weather and better by continuous motion.

Belladonna (deadly nightshade)– When rapid and violent onset of throbbing arthritic pain arises in red, hot, swollen joints,this is the remedy to consider. The arthritic symptoms are aggravated by touch,jarring, and especially by motion; warm wraps relieve them.

Ruta graveolens (rue) — This remedy is sometimes given when the condition develops at the site of an old injury. The symptoms are aggravated by motion or touch, in the morning, and from exposure to cold, wet weather, and they are relieved by rubbing and warmth. Ruta graveolens is also indicated when sensitive nodules develop on the tendons and periosteum (i.e., the covering of the bone where the tendons attach) after an injury. 

Rhododendron (yellow snow rose):  pains that are aggravated during cold and wet weather(especially storms), during the night, and during rest (from sitting too long),and that are relieved by continued motion or walking. It is also known for arthritic pain in the small joints, lower back, or shoulder, and for pains that wander from one place to another. 

MIGRAINE

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A migraine is a severe and painful headache. They can be preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs, such as flashes of light, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs, nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light and sound.

The excruciating pain that migraines bring can last for hours or even days Migraines can be preceded by an aura of sensory disturbances followed by a severe, often one-sided headache The cause is still largely unknown and they tend to affect people aged 15-55. Not everyone will have a ‘typical’ migraine. There are different types of migraines with different symptoms The most common symptoms of a migraine attack include throbbing headache, sensitivity to light and noise, nausea (feeling sick), vomiting (being sick) and lethargy (lack of energy).

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Migraine attack stages or phases

It is often difficult to predict when a migraine attack is going to happen. However, you can often predict the pattern of each attack as there are well defined stages.  It is these stages and their symptoms which distinguish a migraine from a headache.

In adults, we can divide a migraine attack into four or five stages that lead on from each other:

  • Premonitory or warning phase
  • Aura (not always present)
  • The headache or main attack stage
  • Resolution
  • Recovery or postdrome stage

Learning to recognise the different phases of a migraine attack can be useful. You might suffer from one, all, or a combination of these stages, and the combination of stages may vary from attack to attack. Each phase can vary in length and severity.

Recognising different symptoms at different times during your headache attack can give a doctor information which may help diagnosis. Also, taking medication before the symptoms have fully developed may reduce the effect of an attack. A child’s migraine attack is often much shorter than an adult’s attack, and it may therefore not be possible to fully make out the different headache phases.

Premonitory stage

This describes certain physical and mental changes such as tiredness, craving sweet foods, mood changes, feeling thirsty and a stiff neck. These feelings can last from 1 to 24 hours.

Aura

The aura of migraine includes a wide range of neurological symptoms. This stage can last from 5 to 60 minutes, and usually happens before the headache. Migraine without aura does not include this stage.

In some people, changes in the cortex area of the brain cause changes in their sight, such as dark spots, coloured spots, sparkles or ‘stars’, and zigzag lines. Numbness or tingling, weakness, and dizziness or vertigo (the feeling of everything spinning) can also happen. Speech and hearing can also be disturbed, and sufferers have reported memory changes, feelings of fear and confusion, and more rarely, partial paralysis or fainting. These neurological symptoms are called the ‘aura’ of migraine. In adults, they usually happen before the headache itself, but in children, they may happen at the same time as the headache. It is possible to have the aura symptoms without the headache.

The headache or main attack stage

This stage involves head pain which can be severe, even unbearable. The headache is typically throbbing, and made worse by movement. Some sufferers describe a pressing or tightening pain. The headache is usually on one side of the head, especially at the start of an attack. Some sufferers get pain on both sides of the head, or over the forehead, but not usually at the back of the head. Nausea (sickness) and vomiting (being sick) can happen at this stage, and the sufferer may feel sensitive to light or sound, or both.

Resolution

Most attacks slowly fade away, but some stop suddenly after the sufferer is sick, or cries a lot. Sleep seems to help many sufferers, who find that even an hour or two can be enough to end an attack. Many children find that sleeping for just a few minutes can stop their attack.

Recovery or postdrome stage

This is the final stage of an attack, and it can take hours or days for a ‘hangover’ type feeling to disappear. Symptoms can be similar to those of the first stage, and often they are mirrored symptoms. For example, if you lost your appetite at the beginning of the attack, you might be very hungry now. If you were tired, now you might feel full of energy.

There are several categories of methods used to prevent migraine, ranging from diet changes and exercise to prescription drugs; these include:

  • prescription beta blockers
  • anticonvulsants
  • antidepressants
  • gabapentin
  • botulinum toxin A (Botox)
  • herbs and vitamins such as cannabis, coenzyme Q10, feverfew, magnesium citrate, riboflavin, B-12, melatonin
  • spinal cord stimulator implantation
  • hyperbaric oxygen therapy
  • vision correction
  • exercise, sleep, sexual activity
  • visualization and self-hypnosis
  • acupuncture

Some people find that special diets such as gluten-free can help. It is worth noting that some people can get a medication overuse headache (MOH) – or rebound headache – when taking too many medications in an attempt to prevent migraine.

Surgery

In the last decade, novel approaches to the treatment of migraines have been developed. Botulinum toxin (Botox) injection and surgical decompression of the extracranial sensory branches of the trigeminal and cervical spinal nerves have been shown to reduce or eliminate migraines in patients who don’t respond to traditional medical management. This was highlighted in a review published in the journal Plastic and reconstructive surgery in 2014.

Migraine triggers
Triggers include smoking and alcohol, avoiding triggers can help prevent migraines or reduce their severity.

Some people who suffer from migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, but many cannot. Potential migraine triggers include:

  • allergies and allergic reactions
  • bright lights, loud noises, flickering lights, smoky rooms, temperature changes, strong smells, and certain odors or perfumes
  • physical or emotional stress, tension, anxietydepression, and excitement
  • physical triggers such as tirednessjet lag, and exercise
  • changes in sleep patterns or irregular sleep
  • smoking or exposure to smoke
  • skipping meals or fasting causing low blood sugar
  • dehydration
  • alcohol
  • hormonal triggers such as menstrual cycle fluctuations, birth control pills, and menopause
  • tension headaches
  • foods containing tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken livers, figs, and some beans), monosodium glutamate (MSG), or nitrates (like bacon, hot dogs, and salami)
  • other foods such as chocolate, nuts, peanut butter, avocado, banana, citrus, onions, dairy products, and fermented or pickled foods
  • medication such as sleeping tablets, the contraceptive pill, and hormone replacement therapy

Triggers do not always cause migraines and avoiding triggers does not always prevent migraines.

Primary Remedies

Belladonna

This relieves headaches with the feeling of head fullness, and sensitivity to noise and light.

Bryonia

This remedy can be helpful if a person has a heavy or “splitting” headache,. Pain is worse from any motion, even from moving the eyes, and the person wants to lie completely still and not be talked to or disturbed..

Gelsemium

This remedy relieves congestive headaches at the base of the head, as well as headaches around the eye, caused or aggravated by stress.

Glonoinum

This remedy relieves sudden headaches, with fullness of head and feeling of heat, and aggravated by heat.

Other remedies used for migraines depending on symptoms are Ignatia, Iris versicolor, Natrum  muraticum etc